It is recognized, each time more with much enthusiasm, that the education is one of the so obvious necessities that any country, that if it intends to develop in the respect for the values of the citizenship and the human rights, looks for to consolidate in the society. Of the politician-constitutional system and the liberal optics of that Pine Blacksmith was a great apologist, the basic ideal of the education consists of the principle second which the school does not have to be to the service of the privileged ones, but of the capacities of each one. Diverse teses are known on the education defended in ends of sc. XVIII in the sequncia of the French Revolution. Theories that had certainly been analyzed by the pedagogos and ideologists of the education of the whole world. Some educative plans were, then, sketched and in them, said even so of different form, it was defended: ) the gratuitidade of education for all the children; b) equal education for all with alimentary, didcticos supports and others, equal for all; c) obligation of the parents in facilitating to the children the frequency of the school; d) the education as a objectivo for the work, the citizenship, the physical formation; e) preparation for the active life. The educative system of Pine Blacksmith, looks for to answer to the social organization in the direction to make possible to the youth the ingression in the active life, with an adequate preparation. In the Silvestrina school the concern is to endow the young with the knowledge technician-professionals, added of some polyvalence better to be able to face unemployment situations. Initially, the education to give to the children, proposal for Wild Blacksmith, has underlying a clear elitist matrix, because it foresees the separation of the deriving children of inferior and superior classrooms. The author explains this discrimination on the basis of arguments of social order that derive from a hierarchy where the family heads are graduated function of the activity that they play.
The preface of Vitorino Magalhes Godinho to the workmanship of Antnio is interesting Sergio who if comes analyzing: ' ' The school is a city, laboratory, workshop, a community of trabalho.' '. The experience of ' ' Escolar' city; ' she is well elucidative of as if it can (and perhaps if it must) implement a Philosophy of the Education for the values of the citizenship and the human rights: ' ' to accustom the child to the municipal share, the proper life of the city, to the exercise of the right futures of soberania.' '. In accordance with the information collected for Antnio Sergio, on the advantages of ' ' Escolar' city; ' , in Cuba, the following opinions leave: ) Preparation in the knowledge of the duties and right of action of the citizens; b) Love to the truth that is the virtue of the free peoples; c) Respect to the established laws that regulate the order, main actor in all the organized colectividades. (Cf. SERGIO, 1984) Still according to Antnio Sergio, this method of education establishes in some criteria and principles of that if they detach: the idea of that if a social duty without becoming cannot exercise a child one part life in society; the pertaining to school habit to obey an authority; the methodical example of the city-pertaining to school, installs the students in the real conditions of the social existence; it foments the intervention habitual, considered as a duty and to the professor it competes to it entusiasmar its pupils for an ideal. 3. Contributo of the Philosophy and Science for the Human Rights in Century XXI In century XX (and initiate that is sc. XXI), the questions of deep to the level of the human rights remain: permanent breakings, with greater or minor gravity, in all the countries. The Philosophy and Sciences, these said positive, had not yet found the solutions efficient to decide situations that, in some points of the globe, are truily humilhantes.
HumanosVez rights for another one I have published some reflection saying that the schools, by order of the law, had been invaded by outlaws. In reason of this some people raise the questioning, asking if I have some preconception; if I have some phobia in relation the children, adolescents or young infractors that frequentam the schools. My reply always she is the same one: not. I do not have nothing against them, but I have in favor of whom do not finish being victims of these My quarrel defends the rights of that they fulfill the norms, those that if dedicate to the study, the ones that if strengthens for keeping a climate of interaction and learning in the pertaining to school environment. On account of this I condemn the behaviors that if interpose, make it difficult or hinder that the interested parties study. But the rights of the rioters, as are? , the defenders of the rights of who ask run over the right of the students My argument are in a basic right: an individual cannot infernizar the life of a group, unpunishedly.
E the problem occurs, exactly why it does not have punishment. The outlaw, for being protected by a legislation that inverted the values, finishes believing that to make the wrong one it is certain is missed who acts correctly. who acts correctly finishes thinking that it is acting made a mistake therefore, the outlaw acts wrong and he is not penalizado: beyond if amusing to the costs of all the ones that work in the school, he does not study and of the o example that the others want to follow everything due to punishment. Therefore, I have insisted: in the current configuration of the legislation the outlaw finishes if imposing on the honest ones. Everything on behalf of the human rights.
In the Timeu, Plato makes a cosmology. An attempt to explain the sprouting of the Universe running away the question from the myth. In this point it fails, therefore the Timeu still is very imprisoned the idea of a creator, the demiurge, as placed for this. Although this, it obtains a workmanship riqussima in details that try to cure some left conceptual holes throughout other workmanships. What it will be important in the Timeu they are the concepts of soul and its joint with the body. Although to deal with a cosmogonia basically, the Timeu speaks sufficiently of the question of the soul, however, this more is directed to the Soul of the World. What more he is evidenced is the creation of the soul, however, also exists an intrinsic relation of this with the illnesses of the body.
In the measure where each one of these facultieses of the soul is responsible for a part of the body, when these facultieses fail, the body adoece. These facultieses also command the body becoming it functional, but in the occasion of its death, only the rational soul it will remain. Later, Plato makes a dismemberment of the soul, counting as it was created from the finite (the other), of the infinite (the same) and one third substance. Created for the demiurge, and, being in such a way, only the capable one to contemplate the Intelligible World. One sees in such a way, that the soul was made to command the body, however, many times, who is the body commands the soul. In the end of all the process, that is, after the death, the soul is another time without the sensible parts that it had been increased. Returning to the state purely spiritual, the soul is as initially it met.
In Durkheim, now, we can analyze its concern in treating Sociology? a rising science at that moment? as a worthy science of its name, with its rules, laws, methods, objectives, hypotheses, etc. In this manner, in dialogue with sciences of the nature, Durkheim makes use of concepts as ' ' funo' ' (indicating a physiology) and ' ' estruturas' ' (indicating a morphology), to mention itself to the sociological study. That is, Durkheim sees the society as a whole constituted of its parts, where these responsible for are determined functions. It is an analogy to the human body, in which the brain withholds a main function, but would not live without the heart, the kidneys, the liver, the lung, etc. Is in this direction that if of a construction of the structure of the thought of Durkheim.
However, with this, we can see that it also has a method used for Durkheim here, when making its analysis from functions, inserting them in a bigger structure? the society. To the light of Weber, we have now the concern to delimit a way to act of the citizen of the research with regard to its object, when working with the idea of ' ' neutrality axiolgica' ' ; that is, for Weber, the researcher does not have to insert value judgment some in its study, and to work with the biggest possible objetividade. In this direction, the only moments where the researcher can make use of its subjectivity is in the choice of its objects and its hypotheses, but later systematically proving them and with all the objetividade. In if treating to its methodology, research carried through with agricultural workers in determining moment of sc. XIX, Weber works with 3 silogismos: 1) She is of the nature human being only not to live of bread; 2) The agricultural worker is a human being; 3) The agricultural worker does not only live of bread.