The Conscience

The necessity created the agency: larynx little developed of the monkey was transforming, slow more firmente, mediantes modulations that produced in turn modulation more perfect, while the agencies of the mouth little by little learned to pronounce a sound to articulate the other after (ENGELS, 1876, P. 18). This extracted part of the text of Engels illustrates as well as with acquisition of the erect position and from the work other necessities appear, in the cited example say, it and with it they had come new evolutions, new necessities The work starts exactly with the elaboration, and for in practical of the instruments for transformation of the nature. It starts when we think about something, (subjectively), in the necessity of this something, and from there elaborate we it mentally, (previous-ideao), we think about the materials, in as it would be and in its functioning, he stops later placing it in practical or (objetivao). The work, the manuscript forms of substances, and its evolutions, go being transferred of generation to generation and more go being each perfected time. The work is necessarily the relation of the man with the nature, to transform it as its necessities. The animals are not fit in the category to transform the nature, in view of that they do not transform, do not think to act, only make what already it came being made for passed generations, what comes definitive in its genetic codes. That is, it puts in practises its vital activity, as survival, reproduction of the species According to Lukcs ' ' So that the work can be born, while dynamic-estruturante base of a new type of being, is indispensable one determined degree of development of the reproduction process orgnica.' ' man if differs from the animals for the conscience, capacity to define ways and to search solutions that make possible the reach of its objective, having the choice freedom.

Plato, Time And Cosmology

In the Timeu, Plato makes a cosmology. An attempt to explain the sprouting of the Universe running away the question from the myth. In this point it fails, therefore the Timeu still is very imprisoned the idea of a creator, the demiurge, as placed for this. Although this, it obtains a workmanship riqussima in details that try to cure some left conceptual holes throughout other workmanships. What it will be important in the Timeu they are the concepts of soul and its joint with the body. Although to deal with a cosmogonia basically, the Timeu speaks sufficiently of the question of the soul, however, this more is directed to the Soul of the World. What more he is evidenced is the creation of the soul, however, also exists an intrinsic relation of this with the illnesses of the body.

In the measure where each one of these facultieses of the soul is responsible for a part of the body, when these facultieses fail, the body adoece. These facultieses also command the body becoming it functional, but in the occasion of its death, only the rational soul it will remain. Later, Plato makes a dismemberment of the soul, counting as it was created from the finite (the other), of the infinite (the same) and one third substance. Created for the demiurge, and, being in such a way, only the capable one to contemplate the Intelligible World. One sees in such a way, that the soul was made to command the body, however, many times, who is the body commands the soul. In the end of all the process, that is, after the death, the soul is another time without the sensible parts that it had been increased. Returning to the state purely spiritual, the soul is as initially it met.

World Battlefields

In this scope, the images saw satellites in them had disclosed to the declining conditions war refugee human beings running away from the battlefields, the children dying for malnutrition and illnesses, the mutilated ones for the aerial attacks being helped in way to the crossed fire. In one it analyzes of beforehand, globalization beyond revolutionizing the globe with its privileges, also offered an awareness of humanitarian catastrophes directly of the place where they occur, until the television set in the house of the people. We cannot speak only of the war as a denunciation aspect, that the globalization makes possible, but also as an example of alert that it comes to be to natural disasters, as natural earthquakes, tidal waves and storms, that can be foreseen with the thousands of detectors spread for the cantos quatros of the world as for the satellites around of the land. Without hesitation Dr. John Mcdougall explained all about the problem. For these dualismos, the globalization comes providing to a wave manifestations, that if can argue its positive points as negative, has as World-wide Social examples the Fruns of Porto Alegre and Davos in Switzerland, where intellectual, you lead of government, representatives of Ongs, had argued between diverse subjects as poverty, ambient problems, as the Globalization can be a factor of mutual aid between the nations, and not a case of conflict. However, the diverse cultural forms are not offering an alternative that if can arrive at a consensus, on of that it forms appropriate if it can have a mutual cooperation, that offers an exit that pleases to all the sectors. The idea of a global society, that had with one of its eminent defenders sociologist Octvio Ianni, contradicts in many aspects the death of the regional and national culture, as it warns Antonio Cndido, in its classic book ' ' The Partners of the River Bunito' ' (2003), on the death of the culture caipira caused by the agricultural exodus.

The Social

Thus, the virtue can be worked of increasing and continuous form, at the same time where if it moves away the idea from the vice, where the freedom without responsibility is born. Ethical acting is universal behavior in which the individual will raise temples the virtue and will dig dungeons to vice. In this direction, she is necessary to make use of the reflection and the auto-evaluation so that it is possible to have internal changes of behavior, mannering practical attitude or. 2 – Scrates OBJECTIVE understood that the virtuous man is that one that is enough to know what it is goodness and, thus, to practise it. Nowadays, this can seem how much a in such a way simple definition one. However, despite with little applicability to the time, it was a reasonable notion perfectly. For this reason, Scrates is considered ' ' Father of the tica' '. Not having nobody that had reflected organizadamente on the Ethics and ' ' man moral' '.

One gives credit that the relativismo of the Sofistas can have unchained this cohesion of Scrates. How if it would explain, then, the real dissociao of both, if to the man, as affirms Scrates, is enough to know what it is good so that it is good? The sofistas had answered to this question considering that the Ethical one was mere social convention, refute them to Scrates, affirming that apparent dissociao if of exactly because the men do not know what really it is the goodness. This lost notion in way to the vanity and the dominant hypocrisy would blind the man who instead of fighting for real objectives confuses itself in the mist of the social conventions. Already the embryo of the notion feels itself here that Plato will consolidate and generalize in its Alegoria of the Cave. The lesson biggest of Scrates was the opposition of what he was stipulated, of form to attack the moral values.

Greek Democracy

In if treating to education the sofistas they had promoted a revolution in the society Greek breaking the traditional circle of privileges that the aristocrats withheld and when promoting the shock in square was inaugurated a new form to think. Here already I was not more the world I needed to be unmasked, but the man. Which its place in the world? Which the direction of its existence? He would be the destined man great made or was only one joguete at the hands of deuses? Or same they would have to ask itself if the man was only born to nourish itself, to grow, to procreate and to die? If he was only this little or nothing it differed itself from the animals. Therefore these also are born, grow, nourish, reproduce and finally they die. If the man was born only for this would be very little. The sofista launched the new reflection that made possible the man to alar new flights.

The man was born to live in society and if to relate ones with the others, exactly that this relation is conflituosa is better that relation none. With the bloom of great population agglomerations that if had become urban appear then ' ' polis' ' the city Greek. In this context the man passes if to dedicate to the debates in public square aiming at the common good and is delineated the democracy, where the speech prevails and everything this is workmanship of the sofista. It did not appear with the advent of the democracy, for the opposite, forms the condition of possibility of the democracy. He is not without reason that Plato considers the democracy as inadequate for government of a state. Sofistas: villains or breakers of paradigms? We must fears them, to hate them or to weave loas to them for the given services the humanity?


In Durkheim, now, we can analyze its concern in treating Sociology? a rising science at that moment? as a worthy science of its name, with its rules, laws, methods, objectives, hypotheses, etc. In this manner, in dialogue with sciences of the nature, Durkheim makes use of concepts as ' ' funo' ' (indicating a physiology) and ' ' estruturas' ' (indicating a morphology), to mention itself to the sociological study. That is, Durkheim sees the society as a whole constituted of its parts, where these responsible for are determined functions. It is an analogy to the human body, in which the brain withholds a main function, but would not live without the heart, the kidneys, the liver, the lung, etc. Is in this direction that if of a construction of the structure of the thought of Durkheim.

However, with this, we can see that it also has a method used for Durkheim here, when making its analysis from functions, inserting them in a bigger structure? the society. To the light of Weber, we have now the concern to delimit a way to act of the citizen of the research with regard to its object, when working with the idea of ' ' neutrality axiolgica' ' ; that is, for Weber, the researcher does not have to insert value judgment some in its study, and to work with the biggest possible objetividade. In this direction, the only moments where the researcher can make use of its subjectivity is in the choice of its objects and its hypotheses, but later systematically proving them and with all the objetividade. In if treating to its methodology, research carried through with agricultural workers in determining moment of sc. XIX, Weber works with 3 silogismos: 1) She is of the nature human being only not to live of bread; 2) The agricultural worker is a human being; 3) The agricultural worker does not only live of bread.