It is observed that the pathology if presents each more complex time of the clinical point of view on the part of the health professionals (NIEDERMAN et al., 2006). Cesar et al. (1997, P. 54) he informs in them that the acute respiratory infections are responsible for one tero of the deaths and half of hospitalizations and medical consultations between five year minors in the developing countries. The pneumonia, its more serious consequence, kills about 800 children to each hour, with 53% of these deaths occurring in the period after-neonatal. Corroborating this reflection, it enters the multiple factors of risk for the percentile raised one of mortality between minors are the low socioeconmico level, low weight to the rising malnutrition, fails in breast-feeding, familiar agglomeration, pollution in the environment and the domicile. More recently, also the chiados day-care centers and previous episodes had been added frequency of in the chest (VICTORA et al., 1995).
One affirms that of the patologias that acometem the man, none makes use of as much criterion for classification of diagnosis how much the pneumonias. The difficulties faced for the professional of health in classifying the type of pneumonia alone demonstrate that it is more easy to treat it that to classify it. The consequncia of all problem takes the sick individual to an inadequate treatment (TARANTINO, 1997). Cardoso et al. (2001) it defines the CAP as a pathology of infectious origin that attacks the patient rejection of the hospital environment or that it appears in first the 48 hours of the admission of the patient, or better, the sick person acquired the pathology in the community, and can have been caused for bacteria, virus or fungos. The main .causing agents of the CAP are bacterial and viral etiology as Haemophilus influenzae, aureus Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus, bacilli gram negative and legionellas SP, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Clammydia pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae.