Academy Aminoglycosides

Peak concentrations aminoglycosides varies between different patients, because they depend on the volume of distribution. The volume of distribution, in turn, depends on body weight, fluid volume and adipose tissue of the patient. For example, patients with extensive burns, ascites volume of distribution of aminoglycosides is increased. On the contrary, dehydration, or muscular dystrophy, it decreases. Aminoglycosides are distributed in the extracellular fluids, including blood serum, exudate abscesses, ascitic, pericardial, pleural, synovial, peritoneal and lymphatic fluid.

Capable of creating high concentrations in organs with a good blood supply: Liver, lungs, kidneys (where they accumulate in the cortex). Low concentrations are found in sputum, bronchial secretions, bile, breast milk. Aminoglycosides are poorly through the BBB. When inflammation of the meninges, the permeability of several increases. Babies in the CSF reached a higher concentration than in adults.

Aminoglycosides are not metabolized, the kidneys by glomerular filtration as unchanged, creating a high concentration in urine. Excretion rate depends on age, renal function and patient comorbidities. In patients with fever, it may increase with decreasing kidney function slows down considerably. People elderly because of reduced glomerular filtration rate may also slow excretion. The half-life of aminoglycosides in adults with normal renal function is 2-4 hours, in the newborn – 5-8 hours in children – 2.5-4 h. In renal failure the half-life can increase up to 70 hours or more. Indications Empiric therapy (in most cases is prescribed in combination with -lactams, glycopeptides or antianaerobnymi drugs, Depending on the alleged agents): Sepsis of unknown etiology. Infective endocarditis. Post-traumatic and postoperative meningitis. Fever in neutropenic patients. Nosocomial pneumonia (including ventilation). Pyelonephritis. Intra-abdominal infections. Pelvic infection. Diabetic foot. Postoperative or post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Septic arthritis. Local therapy: eye infection – bacterial conjunctivitis and keratitis. Specific therapy: Plague (streptomycin). Tularemia (streptomycin, gentamicin). Brucellosis (streptomycin). Tuberculosis (streptomycin, kanamycin). Antibiotic prophylaxis: Decontamination bowel before elective surgery on the colon (neomycin or kanamycin in combination with erythromycin). Aminoglycosides can be used to treat community-acquired pneumonia in both outpatient and in-patient conditions. This is due to the lack of activity of this group of antibiotics for the primary causative agent – the pneumococcus. In the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia aminoglycosides administered parenterally. Intratracheal instillation aminoglycosides because of the unpredictable pharmacokinetics does not improve clinical efficacy. It is wrong for the appointment of aminoglycoside therapy, shigellosis and salmonellosis (both inside and parenterally) because they are clinically ineffective against pathogens, which are localized intracellularly. Aminoglycosides are not recommended for monotherapy staph infections, since there Other effective but less toxic drugs antistafilokokkovye. Aminoglycosides should not be used for the treatment of uncomplicated infections IMP, except in cases where the pathogen is resistant to other, less toxic antibiotics. Aminoglycosides also should not be used for local application in the treatment of skin infections due to the rapid development of resistance in microorganisms. You should avoid the use of aminoglycosides for flow-through drainage and irrigation of the abdominal cavity due to their severe toxicity. From market analysis of substances of antibiotics can be found in the report of the Academy of IKAR industrial markets "Market substances antibiotics in Russia. "

Deodorant Stick

MEN S Aftershave Balm / Balm after shaving Removes a feeling of tightness and provides ultimate comfort! Instantly absorbed, leaving no oily sheen. Contains carefully selected ingredients: ‘pleasant menthol cools and tones the skin, creates a sense of purity and freshness, ‘Panthenol instantly soothes and moisturizes the skin after shaving,’ allantoin prevents inflammation; ‘shea butter provides optimum protection. Balm Shaving is recommended for men with normal to dry skin. 100 ml of professional advice: Apply a thin layer on the skin after shaving procedure. If you have combination or oily skin, use a gel instead of balm after Shave in a series of Ideal Men. 3. MEN’S Moisturizing Cream / Moisturizer MEN’S Men’s skin needs daily care.

Especially in cold weather and frequent shaving her stress cause dehydration. There is a feeling of tightness, there is irritation and flaking. This moisturizing cream solves all problems! Sesame oil and shea butter soften the skin, eliminate flaking and restore the natural protective barrier and restore the natural protective barrier return a pleasant feeling of comfort. Since dehydration of the skin helps make short work of a unique set of related skin substances – NMF (natural moisturizing factor). The formula also includes herbal cream extracts, vitamin E and UV filters to protect against external stress, slow the aging process and prevent the appearance of early wrinkles.

Cream instantly absorbed without greasy shine through and vegetable polyphenols preserves the natural matte skin throughout the day. It is recommended for men with normal to dry skin. Capacity 50 ml Professional advice: Apply a thin layer of agent on a clean face and neck. Use the following washing in the evening and morning, in the days when you do not shave. 4. MEN’S Cleansing Gel / Cleansing Gel for washing MEN’S Gently cleanses skin of dirt and greasy, great tones and refreshes. Contains wheat proteins and panthenol preserving the natural skin moisture. In formula witch hazel extract normalizes the function of the sebaceous glands, helps to narrow pores and reduce shine. Allantoin prevents inflammation. It is recommended for men with normal and combination skin. Capacity – 150 ml Professional advice: rinse face and neck with water, apply a small amount of gel and massage the skin with circular motions, then carefully rinse with water. 5. MEN’S Deo Stick / Deodorant Stick MEN’S Has a nice refreshing flavor blends perfectly with the means of shaving and skin care products MEN’S. Thanks to the deodorizing component (farnesol) protects against odor sweat, retains a sense of purity and freshness throughout the day. Contains soothing skin Bisabolol. Deodorant Stick is very easy to use: a cost-spent, it is easy to spread on the skin and does not create the effect of stickiness. Does not contain alcohol. Mild formula is suitable for men with sensitive skin. Capacity – 50 ml Professional advice: Apply to clean skin on armpits, gently massage until completely absorbed funds.

How To Treat Appendicitis ?

If the diagnosis of "appendicitis" is most often carried out removal of the appendix (appendectomy). Antibiotics are beginning to show before the surgery as soon as diagnosed. Some patients inflammation and infection of appendicitis remain weak and do not cover the abdomen. The human body is capable not only to contain the inflammation and get rid of it yourself. These patients feel good about their condition improves and after a few days of observation. Such appendicitis can be treated only with antibiotics.

After a while, the appendix can be removed (or remove). The difficulty is to distinguish appendicitis from a prone to complications. Sometimes the patient does not go to the doctor for so long that by the time of treatment appendicitis with perforation of the appendix has been many days or even weeks. In this case, there is usually already formed an abscess, and perforation of the appendix is closed. If the abscess is small, we can first carry out therapy with antibiotics, however, often abscess drain required. Drainage is usually made by ultrasound or CT scan, you can use to accurately determine the location of the abscess. Appendix removed later several weeks or months after the abscess removed. This is called delayed appendectomy is performed and to prevent recurrence of an attack of appendicitis.

The Liver

Unfortunately, or fortunately for ultrasound all depends on the doctor's experience, qualifications, and just the desire and time to understand, in What's the problem. So the doctor must assess during the study and write in prison, respectively. In this article I will focus only on the abdominal organs, since I am not an expert in the field of urology and gynecology. Let's start with the liver. On examination, the physician should evaluate the size of the position of the body structure of the tissue (parenchyma), with availability changes. Be sure to examine the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, indicating their diameter and the presence of impurities.

If your doctor tells you that he sees signs of liver inflammation or hepatitis, then be sure to ask what. Indirect sign of hepatitis (inflammation) may be an increase in liver collapsed gallbladder with a wall thickness of 3 mm. If you say that your liver can see some bands or blurring gepatatsitov you should doubt the veracity of the doctor. It is also a worrying sign is the fact that the doctor can not visualize (see) the liver, intrahepatic (equity protki, segmental visible only when their expansion) and extrahepatic bile ducts, because a lot of gas in the intestines (the so-called aerokoliya), you fat, inconvenient and unpleasant just the patient, ask a lot of irrelevant questions. Liver and bile ducts (except for the segmental) can be seen almost invariably. Next on stage gallbladder. With his description of the need to evaluate size, wall thickness, luminal contents homogeneous or not (contains foreign matter or does not).

American Heart Association

A figurative expression of the American surgeon Lilliheya, myocardial infarction, referred to as "black smallpox XX century". In fact, these global statistics are not encouraging. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 2 / 3 deaths from cardiovascular disease among persons aged 45 to 64 account for more than coronary heart disease and especially heart attacks. In the U.S., for example, die of a heart attack about 600 thousand people per year (Data of the American Heart Association), in France the victims of this disease each year are 200,000 people, of whom 50 000 die suddenly or in the early hours of the disease. In Moscow, myocardial infarction affects annually average of 3 out of 1000 men over 40 years. Throughout the world, recognized that in our country very well organized and well-developed protivoinfarktnaya service.

This includes early hospitalization of patients, special department, where apply the latest methods of treatment, and finally, rehabilitation patients. Much credit for creating the service belongs to the famous Soviet scientist: N. Anichkov, A. Myasnikov, P. Lukomsky, E. Chazov, IK Shhvatsabaya and their students.

Thus, therapists have done a lot for the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. Relatively recently, the treatment of these diseases are connected surgeons. In article describes the work conducted at the Department of Vascular and coronary surgery, which is headed by Prof. D. Knyazev (Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery, Department of Health). Beginning Surgical treatment of acute myocardial infarction beginning in 1972 the department of vascular and coronary surgery patients enrolled AM This 52-year-old man were struck by two main arteries that feed the heart. M. 60 tablets to take nitroglycerin in the day, but no drugs have not helped. January 20 the patient developed acute myocardial infarction. It was decided to operate urgently. On this day our department kept a serious examination: and Prof.


Tell a wonderful story. Once I go out of the institute on the main street. A few words about myself. I am a girl slim, nice finish college. I live with my mother, my mother is an accountant in a construction firm. In general, zheiznyu normal. So, I go down the street and coming towards me is middle-aged woman is so happy and smiling.

Comes closer stops and asks what's up at the institute, how are you my mother? And I look at it and did not understand. Before me stands a modern, beautiful young woman and asks questions as if we are familiar with. Intellectually I understand that this is probably my mom with a familiar, but I can not find out. Automatically respond to her questions, and try to remember who it. The person is young, well-groomed skin, no wrinkles, eyes shining and comes from all kind of self-confidence, her whole appearance radiates health and energy.

And suddenly I was struck by a shock. Yes this is Aunt Tanya, my mother's friend, and together they I studied in college. I like this: "Tanya's aunt, is that you can not believe that the metamorphosis has happened to you? We have not seen all year, and you become younger as 10 years. "" "Genia, all the way – says Aunt Tanya – I really changed over the last year, I'm young again! I like this: "Tanya's aunt, and what chip? Compared with the Mama You're just a young virgin, just super. " It is this: "Genia, the secret is that I was advised Photostim unique product. For a year I took two courses of the drug and this is the result before you. Besides the obvious cosmetic effect considerably strengthened and health, many were sore, I feel fine, energy to spare. " The drug acts on cellular level and is very effective, especially in terms of "female" disease (see details on). Arriving home, told my mother about the meeting with Aunt Tanya. Word for word and thought and what mom is worse? Bought Photostim, my mother also took two courses. A year passed. The result exceeded all expectations. Cosmetic effect of a stunning, 10 years is gone, wrinkles smoothed out. Mom says it's not the drug, and the surgeon without a scalpel. And my mother said that the transport and work began to catch on itself looks very interesting, even men. That's a remarkable story. A product can be ordered at Photostim or. Art. Consultant Eugene

Bladder Times

Strawberry timber (leaf) – 20 g, knot-grass (grass) – 40 g, corn silk – 20 g cinnamon rose -20, the Take 1 / 2 cup of warm infusion 3 times a day with urolithiasis. Birch (leaf) – 20 g rest-harrow field (roots) – 20 g, Juniperus (fruit) – 20 g, celandine (grass) – 20 g, erect cinquefoil (grass) – 20 g. Take 1 cup of infusion in the form of heat at night with stones in the bladder and ureters. Cowberry pine (leaf) – 20 g, bearberry (leaf) – 50 g, kidney tea (herb) – 30 g. Use of 1/3-1/4 cup of broth 3-4 times a day as a diuretic. Juniperus (berries) – 40 g, horsetail (herb) – 40 g, couch (Rhizome) – 20 g.

Take 1 tablespoon of broth 3-4 times daily before meals as a diuretic. . Cornflower blue (flowers) – 10 g, bearberry – 20 g parsley (fruit) – 10 g, white birch (kidneys) – 10 g, watch a three-sheeted (Leaf) – 40 g, elfwort (roots) – 10 g. Take 1 / 2 cup of broth to 3 times a day for 15 minutes before a meal as a diuretic. Anise ordinary (fruit) – 10 g parsley Ogorodnaya (grass) – 20 g, shepherd's purse (herb) – 10 g, juniper ordinary (fruit) – 15 g, bearberry (leaf) – 15 g rest-harrow field (root) – 15 g, dandelion (root) – '15 Prepare a decoction of 10 grams of the collection. Take 1/2-1/3 cup in the form of heat 2-3 times a day for diseases urinary system.


Why can not we cope with acne? It is difficult to say with certainty. Too much misunderstood in this matter, left unsaid, contradictory. Just yesterday, for example, believed that the appearance of acne blame for food. Today say it has nothing to do with it. And that tomorrow will say experts at – I think that God himself is unknown.

Even the name of this painful bumps than one. It is called a blackhead, a pimple is, the acne, the comedo. There are different versions and points of view acne, there is no unity among the experts. To date, about acne medicine, known only as follows. Who came up with Acne? When exactly will pimples on the body – It is not nobody knows. This can happen in 12 years, and 15, and older. It all depends on when the adolescent begins the process of puberty.

And it does not start at all at the same time. Back in the old saying fathers to children, they say, be patient, my son or daughter, pimples will then themselves. People wisdom is not far from the truth. In most cases, 20-25 years (again – roughly) acne disappear. By this time, puberty should already "ustakanilos", enter the labor regime and start to run like clockwork. In most cases, I repeat, is what happens. But, unfortunately, not at all. Someone eels trapped in a body to old age. Here it is appropriate to ask, mature-all teens, acne and for some reason there are only a few.

How To Fight Depression

You get a feeling of guilt for not shown activity in a new working day, family problems prevent sleep? Such a mental disorder like depression, has some features for example: depression more common in female population, they become public skate. Depressive Disorder these days are so common in France in patients with mild depression do not give Sick. Increasingly described disorder tends to spread, to become the norm of civilized society. It is worth noting that approximately one third of depressive disorders should be fashion. Some of the young women suffer from depression just as they have a desire to visit the shops of fashionable clothes.

In general, medicine, depression made by the triple recognize the symptoms. The first thing you should pay attention, because it's on reduction in the overall mood, which appears pessimistic setting to life. The range of mood disorders ranging from mild sadness to a physical sensation of "stone heart." The second symptom of depression – reduction motor activity. The person in this state is slow. He himself is a state perceives as weakness, lethargy, fatigue. The third symptom, completing the triad – a slowing of thought. For some it may be confusing, and you ask "What does this mean?" My answer to mental health professionals indicator tempo of your thinking – this, as well as response to questions addressed to you.

A person suffering from depression, said slowly and quietly usual; he does not notice, but there is always around to point to it. Subjectively, the slowdown in thinking you can evaluate how to forgetfulness, impaired concentration. Classic triple features, of course, can often occur in a person's life. Moreover, bad mood you can visit several times a day, accompanied by the loss, mourning or event in your life. Therefore, usually referred to depression status up to two, three or more months. To understand whether you have developed depression, the above symptoms may not always be enough, so you should bring a number of typical symptoms of depression: Depression can be defined to reduce libido, and increase feelings of guilt.

Diets and Nutrition

The first subgroup – breaks down and does not deposit in the body fat, the incoming with food. Preparations of the second subgroup – this fat burners. They break down the existing fat in the body. Such preparations often contain bromelain – an enzyme secreted from the South American guarana. Preparations for outdoor use. This group includes a variety of anti-cellulite gels and creams, patches, massagers and various termopreparaty to promote break down of fats (which should be applied to problem areas in while playing sports).

Nutritional – These drugs work to alleviate diets. They contain fiber, which swells in the stomach and some substances that reduce appetite. Strong effect from this category means we should not expect, but they should be consumed with great caution. After all, if you eat them without changing eating habits – you can not only lose weight but gain weight. It should be noted that one of the most popular categories – is a means to reduce appetite. Although in reality, they are recommended for people with really heavy weights.

In use it is believed that damage to the health of the extra pounds will be many times more damage the use of medicines. If you buy these products – be sure to read the instructions. Manufacturers are required to specify the dosage and the drug, as well as be responsible for their effectiveness and security. However, this is not a panacea. Even in a developed country like the U.S., with a very serious attitude to medicine and the availability of special organizations controlling release of such products in certain pharmaceutical Drugs were found hazardous constituents, which were not specified in the instructions. Many anorectics contain sibutramine. This substance, which since 2008 has been included in the list of potent drugs, and Holiday preparations based on it can be done only on prescription. Consultation with a dietitian will not interfere in any way.